Good points about Sweden which Japan should learn to love





When I was flying back from Stockholm this week, I noticed a book on sale at Arlanda airport called Almost Perfekt: How Sweden Works And What We Can Learn From It.

I didn’t buy it but I would like to read it. After all, on the surface Sweden seems wonderful – although it’s rather cold.

The parts of Stockholm I visited were clean, with lots of public art and smooth transportation. I was particularly impressed by the university. The service in the shops and restaurants was great. And a guided tour of the City Hall emphasised how much Swedes cherish democracy.

During my trip I learned that Sweden has the first feminist government in the world. The government’s website explains that this means: “Women and men must have the same power to shape society and their own lives. This is a human right and a matter of democracy and justice.”

I wonder if anyone has ever considered writing a book about Japan called Almost Kanpeki (Perfect). As a society, Japan works well. Like Sweden, it has good public transport, great customer service and sophisticated education. It’s a democracy and gender equality is enshrined in Clause 24 of the Japanese constitution.

Yet I doubt any publisher would welcome a book which only sings Japan’s praises and overlooks all its problems. After all, the media have been reporting that the country is on the way towards another severe recession.

“The future of the Japanese economy is gloomy and efforts to deal with the low birthrate and rapidly aging society haven’t worked,” says Akira Nagae, a 62-year-old former magazine editor and author from Hokkaido.

I used to like bookstores

I was struck by the title of Mr Nagae’s new book: “I used to like bookstores: Behind the scenes of the flood of hate books.” It was published last November by Tarojiro Editas.

In an interview, Mr Nagae explained that the “hate books” he sees flooding the Japanese stores are normally focussed on two other countries: China and South Korea. He thinks some writers are deflecting their own anxiety about Japan’s problems and turning into unfounded criticism of those nations.

“In 2019, the relationship between Japan and South Korea was the worst it has ever been,” Mr Nagae told Nikkan Gendai. “Around this time, I couldn’t help but notice the proliferation of so-called hate books. Set up in corners of the bookstores, stacks of such books using discriminatory words about South Korea were displayed to catch the notice of many customers.

“In my book, I try to clarify the backdrop of why bookstores in Japan are circulating hate books and what occurred to cause this to happen.”

Learn from the Swedes

I believe the Japanese can learn something from the people of Sweden. I can see from the Twitter feed of the author of the Almost Perfekt book, David Crouch, that he doesn’t regard Sweden as paradise. He acknowledges that it has economic and social problems, some of which are very similar to those in Japan.

But in highlighting the good points about Sweden, he tries to suggest ways other societies could implement ideas which work well. I doubt that his book praising Sweden will lead any reader to start hating its neighbours, such as Denmark, Norway and Finland. After all, why should praise for one country lead us to dwell on the shortcomings of its rivals?

Swedes, Danes, Norwegians and Finns have been enemies in the past. But they now co-operate in facing many modern challenges.

Japan and its East Asian neighbours are also deeply interlinked. For that reason, I support Mr Nagae’s campaign to get the hateful books taken off the shelves.

And if we can all manage to be a bit more positive, I am sure that our Swedish friends would give us an encouraging smile.

Olympics under pressure as Japan prepares for recession

Since the outbreak of COVID-19 was declared a global health emergency, the International Olympic Committee has been faced with the arduous task to decide if the Tokyo Olympic Games should go ahead this July.
The principle concern is that during a huge sports gathering, the virus could spread further.

China is planning to send more than 600 athletes to the Olympics, along with a large contingent of supporters.

In response to heated speculation in the press and on social media, the head of the coordinating commission of the International Olympic Committee, John Coats, denied that the games are in jeopardy. He told reporters in Tokyo: “The advice we have received from the World Health Organisation is that there is no case for a contingency plan to move or cancel the Games.”

Economic cost

Unlikely as a cancellation would be, it would not be without precedent. The Olympics have been cancelled five times in the past, including during two world wars.

There was also debate about the viability of the Rio Olympics four years ago because of a mysterious virus called Zika, which was blamed for causing birth defects.

At the press briefing in Tokyo, John Coats promised that lessons would be learned from Rio. “The World Health Organisation pointed out the likelihood of Zika being a problem at the time of the Games was very low,” he said.

“But we did lose some athletes and we didn’t communicate the information well enough.”

Rory Green, the China and North Asia Economist at TS Lombard said that if the Olympic Games were to be cancelled, this would have a very serious impact on the Japanese economy.

“There has been an expectation that the Games will spark an increase in domestic demand in Japan. There’s been a lot of government investment already in infrastructure and also investment by the private sector, for example in increasing room capacity in hotels,” said Mr Green.

“The Olympic Games are also a branding campaign for Japan Inc and an attempt to restore the national image of the country, as well as to give a shot in the arm to the whole economy,” he added.

Threat of recession

The problems facing Japan’s economy were clear in data released this week which suggested that the country is heading for another recession.

The economy shrank at an annualised rate of 6.3 percent in the final quarter of 2019. This figure was described in the Financial Times as “very weak, dismal and shockingly bad” by the chief economist of UBS, Masamichi Adachi.

In an interview with FujiSankei Business, the governor of the Bank of Japan Haruhiko Kuroda, said that coronavirus was “the biggest source of uncertainty for Japan’s economy” but insisted there was little chance of growth in 2020 falling far below 2019.

Mr Kuroda also said that the central bank would launch further monetary easing “without hesitation” should it prove necessary.

However, with overnight interest rates already at minus 0.1 percent, the options open to the Bank of Japan are limited. What seems to be required is an approach which is consistent with other parts of Asia, including South Korea and China.

Rory Green predicts a more or less simultaneous response. “Because the virus is spreading throughout the region, we expect all the Asian countries to take similar initiatives at around the same time,” he told me.
Japan is used to desperate struggles against recession.

Yet this is far from the optimistic messages sent by Prime Minister Shinzo Abe at election time.
He promised a miraculous recovery. Unfortunately, the economy appears to be suffering from a chronic condition, with no immediate prospect of a cure.

Parasite and Shoplifters – Brilliant shocking stories from Asia

In winning an Oscar, the makers of the South Korean film Parasite have drawn attention to some serious social problems facing their country.

Parasite’s story focuses on inequality between rich and poor families. It shows the dreadful living conditions which are endured by some people in Seoul.

This dark tale is reminiscent of Japanese films which I have seen, which also used family stories to examine social issues. Sometimes, after watching one of those movies, I have left the cinema feeling uneasy but I was pleased to gain a fresh perspective on Japan.

Critics’ choice

For example, Shoplifters, directed by Hirokazu Kore-eda (above) took an unflinching look at child poverty and social exclusion. Like Parasite, it’s a deeply moving film and it had a fantastic cast – especially the child actors.

Critics have developed a taste for intense dramas from Asia and Shoplifters won the coveted Palme d’Or at the Cannes Film Festival.

I expect more movies of this type will be commissioned both in South Korea and Japan. However in China, it’s becoming increasingly difficult to raise funding for films which expose the dark side of life.

Samsung’s riches

South Koreans often complain about inequality.

It’s therefore fitting that a film from that country exposes the gap between privileged people and those on the margins of society.

For example, the Chairman of Samsung Group, Lee Kun-hee, is due to receive 470 billion won – US $400 million – in share dividends for last year.

That’s despite the fact that Samsung’s profits were down sharply because of a slump in computer chip sales.

Sometimes, politicians in South Korea attempt to challenge the vested interests of chaebol conglomerates, such as Samsung. But it’s not easy to change a system which is so ingrained into the economy.


Inevitably, there are stereotypes in the press about South Korea, just as there about Japan.

The journalist David Fickling recently set out to challenge some of them.

In a piece for Bloomberg Opinion, he analysed numbers from the World Bank and concluded that “South Korea is east Asia’s most egalitarian society.”

Those who have seen Parasite will be surprised by that claim. But Fickling argues his case well, based on extensive research.

Common challenges

Aside from inequality, South Korea, Japan and China share other challenges.

They all have ageing populations. Their cities are straining because of urbanisation. And they have had disasters linked to extreme weather and climate change.

They also, unfortunately, now all face a common threat from the coronavirus.

Films such as Parasite and Shoplifters have been rightly lauded for the skill of their casts and directors. They deserve attention and prizes.

For international viewers, they bring to the screen the struggles of life on the margins in East Asia. We are fortunate these stories are being told.

“Lands apart, shared sky” – Japan’s response to coronavirus

One of the leading experts on infectious diseases told me this week that he is encouraged that there has so far been no major spread of the coronavirus outside of China.

Professor David Heymann explained that it’s inappropriate to describe the situation as a pandemic, even though the disease has been recorded in about 25  countries and has led to deaths in two places outside of China.

High alert

Japan is on high alert.

According to the Japan Times, twenty cases of pneumonia caused by the new coronavirus have been reported, four of which occurred in Tokyo.

Dr Heymann, who’s a distinguished fellow of the global health programme at Chatham House in London, told reporters that “outside of China, it seems as though there has been great success in controlling the disease.”

I was somewhat reassured by his words, which were in contrast to the alarming stories which have been appearing in the media.

Alarm in the press

Beijing’s Foreign Affairs Ministry spokeswoman has complained about a global panic and has accused reporters of spreading fear.

At Chatham House, Dr Heymann said that some journalists are basing their stories about the dangers of coronavirus on speculation.

“We don’t have enough information to know if it’s a pandemic and I don’t like to make predictions,” he said.

Experimental measures

He also said actions such as banning people from flying, preventing them from leaving cities such as Wuhan, or trying to control crowds are “experimental measures.”

This is significant for Japan, where the authorities are trying to quarantine thousands of people on board a cruise ship called the Diamond Princess, which is docked in Yokohama.

Japanese TV has shown footage of medical officials on board the boat, checking the guests’ temperatures.

Lands apart, shared sky

Many Japanese are sympathetic to the problems facing people from China and their concern is appreciated.

Quartz reports that users of social media in China have widely shared a post showing boxes of face masks donated by Japan for people in Wuhan.

The picture apparently includes a message written in Chinese: 山川异域 风月同天 (shan chuan yi yu, feng yue tong tian), which roughly translates as “lands apart, shared sky.”

Limited protection

Unfortunately, from a medical perspective, the masks are of limited value.

Dr Heymann told the meeting at Chatham House that although masks are useful in preventing someone from spreading the virus when they sneeze or cough, they don’t prevent a person from catching a disease.

He warned that people will be at risk from infection if they take off the mask to eat, or if it’s not fitted properly, or if it gets wet.

He also said that a vaccine for the coronavirus remains a long way off and “there will probably not be a vaccine in time for this outbreak.”

What I learned by watching Davos from afar

One of my dreams is to be paid to attend the World Economic Forum in Davos, Switzerland.

It’s the best place to network with famous leaders and the guests there this year included President Donald Trump and Greta Thunberg.

When I worked at the BBC, I was always jealous of colleagues who were assigned as journalists to Davos. Now I am a freelance reporter, it’s out of my price range as conference registration, travel and a hotel room are all incredibly expensive.

Fortunately, I can get a taste of what’s being debated through the media.

Climate change and its economic impact was the most discussed topic at Davos 2020.

Jiji Press reported that the Bank of Japan Governor, Haruhiko Kuroda, said Japan’s economy probably fell into negative growth in October-December 2019, partly due to damage from a series of powerful typhoons which struck the country.

World of work

Another point of discussion was the impact of technology on work.

Jonas Prising, the chairman of the huge international personnel company Manpower, told the conference that “we are currently in a very good period for labour markets globally.”

He claimed that rather than reducing job opportunities, technology is creating jobs. “Automation and technology is having a very positive impact in terms of overall job growth,” said Mr Prising.

Yet he also noted that there are some people who are frustrated because they don’t have the right set of skills to take advantage of globalisation.

Immigration opportunities

Japan has a low unemployment rate – only 2.2 percent in November 2019 – so there is much talk about bringing in more foreigners to fill some of the vacancies.

Mr Prising said: “Demographic rates and birth rates are dropping all over the world, so many countries need immigration. It is important to ensure the health of the labour market and to enable economic growth,” he said.

My friend Yuuichiro Nakajima from Crimson Phoenix was invited onto the BBC to talk about Japan’s tight labour market this week.

He explained that managers are having to make some tough decisions, such as cutting the opening hours for restaurants, petrol stations and convenience stores.

Mr Nakajima said that that the government is trying to encourage immigrants to come to work in Japan, so it is issuing more visas, especially to skilled foriegn workers.

The role of women

He also explained that many more women are now part of the workforce than previously.

“I think there is a bit of a conundrum there, because the more women, especially the younger ones, you encourage to enter, or remain, in the labour market, the less likely they are to produce offspring, or to put off having children to a later age,” said Mr Nakajima.

He went on: “Unless the government encourages women to be productive in terms of producing more children as well as be productive in the labour market, then I think we are going to continue to be in a bind.”

Deputy PM Taro Aso calls Japan a nation with single race

Japanese Finance Minister Taro Aso. Pic: AP 

I’ve only recently become aware that Japan is racially diverse. Like many outsiders, I initially assumed that because it is a very homogenous society, all Japanese people come from the same stock.

Yet I now realise that there are several distinct identities among the indigenous people of Japan. And although there is one dominant group, sometimes referred to as the Yamato Japanese, other ethnic groups include the Koreans, Ainu, Oroks, Taiwanese, Ryukyuans and Nivkh.
Northern culture

The Ainu, which came originally from the Northern part of Japan, including Hokkaido, have their own language and culture, which some people are trying to save from disappearing.

They have been successful in raising their profile. For example, an image of an Ainu woman was used as the main publicity picture for a recent exhibition about manga at the British Museum.

The Ainu were recognised as indigenous under legislation which went through the parliament in Tokyo last year. Now the government’s official policy is “to make efforts to support the Ainu people and eradicate discrimination against them.”

Racial controversy

The Deputy Prime Minister Taro Aso stirred controversy when he mentioned race during a speech this month.
He said: “There is no other nation but (Japan) where a single race has spoken a single language at a single location and maintained a single dynasty with a single emperor for over 2,000 years,” said Mr Aso, who is also the finance minister.

“It is a great nation,” he concluded.

Mr Aso was criticised in the press for apparently ignoring the social contribution of the Ainu and other ethnic groups.

His later said: “If my remarks caused a misunderstanding, I apologise and will correct them. I have no intention of denying the government’s policy.”

Foreign presence

In covering the story, reporters from Associated Press informed their readers that “Japan has 2.7 million foreign residents, more than 2% of its total population of 126 million, according to government statistics.”

Apparently, international couples comprised more than 3% of the marriages in 2017. Last year, Japan relaxed visa requirements to allow more foreign people to work there.

The Chinese perspective

I briefly discussed Mr Aso’s remarks during a meeting I held this week with senior Chinese diplomats. They were careful not to criticise the deputy prime minister. But one of the Chinese officials reminded me that China is also an ethnically diverse country, with widespread regional differences.

“We believe it is common sense that all ethnic groups are equal,” the diplomat asserted. “It is not a matter of so-called political correctness but it is fundamental to China’s identity.”

He went on to explain that the government’s policy is to encourage everyone in China to learn Mandarin, as this helps with their education and prepares them to do business with other parts of China.

I hope that I’ll be able to continue learning about the ethnic mix of both China and Japan. I’d particularly like to hear directly from members of minority groups, so that I gain more insight into a fascinating issue which is often misunderstood by foreigners.

Good news for the salaryman – you can go home early!

The Japanese are famous for working long hours in the office and I am afraid I have often hear foreigners complain that this doesn’t make them particularly efficient.

However, things are changing. Working hours in Japan have dropped for several years, according to a report I received this week from Oxford Economics.

I was surprised by this. But the report explained that many more women and elderly people have joined the labour force as part-time workers.

This has had a big impact on the working lives of traditional salarymen – people who used to give the impression of working like slaves.

Less pressure

Fortunately, the pressure on these poor souls seems to be easing as some of their work is now being taken up by the part-timers. You often see these people on the checkouts of department stores, or helping out on the railways and buses.

Prime Minister Shinzo Abe has encouraged companies to improve the work-life balance of their staff. This means many bosses now hesitate before pressing their teams to sacrifice their evenings or weekends for the sake of the corporation.

The good news for the part-time workers, including many women, is that hourly wages keep rising. But the head of Oxford Economics’ Japan team, Shigeo Nagai, notes a downside to this trend. He claims that family incomes are not rising due to an overall decline in working hours. In other words, if he main breadwinner is working less, this has an impact on the income of the family team.

Tight labour market

Mr Nagai believes that this is an inevitable result of the country’s ageing and shrinking population and he reckons that “the current expansion of employment, led by rising participation of women and elderly, will eventually end.”

As the Financial Times pointed out recently, a quarter of Japan’s population is over 65, making it one of the world’s fastest-ageing nations.

The FT says the very low unemployment rate – it was only 2.2 per cent in November 2019 – is caused by demographic change and shows that the country has “a chronically tight labour market.”

Money puzzle

But that leaves a puzzle. If the labour market is so “tight” why aren’t people’s incomes rising?

Given the stiff competition between companies to find staff – and the relatively small pool of people looking to find a new job – you would have expected employers to offer more money. Yet on the whole, they don’t seem to be willing or able to do so.

Jobs for life

One theory favoured by Mr Nagai and others is that Japan’s lifetime employment system holds back wage growth because it has restrained base-pay growth for regular workers.

I have heard this problem mentioned many times at meetings about Japan’s economy and I know that it is an issue which worries politicians, civil servants and the people who run the Bank of Japan. Yet no-one seems to be able to find a solution.

Of course, many people in Japan are relatively well off. The staff of the big successful companies can expect a good pension and a great deal of job security.

So for some the rewards are good. Yet as Oxford Economics notes: “stagnant household income been a major constraint on Japan’s economic growth.”

Carlos Ghson: The media are not delivering the full facts

Before the authorities in Japan can bring Carlos Ghosn to justice, they must answer two pressing questions.

Where is he?

And who is helping him to stay on the run?

The international press has given extensive coverage to Mr Ghosn’s story, focussing on claims he left Japan on December 29th, months before he was due to stand trial in Tokyo for financial misconduct.

Yet much of the coverage has been confusing and misleading. In my view, it is in danger of undermining trust in some of the world’s most respected media institutions.

Disputed facts

Let’s start with a “fact” that has been covered by nearly all the media: that Mr Ghosn has fled Japan and returned to Lebanon.

This is being reported due to a “statement to the media” which was said to have come directly from Mr Ghosn himself.

Yet there has been no clear information about who received this statement or from which email address it was sent.

If Mr Ghosn wants to communicate with the media, why doesn’t he contact one of the many journalists who have been assigned to the story?

Between them, CNN and the BBC employ five thousand journalists. Not one of them has been able to obtain any confirmation that Mr Ghosn is really in Lebanon.

Warning sign

Another warning sign is that the press are quoting “an anonymous source” who allegedly acts as Mr Ghosn’s mouthpiece.

This source, who has apparently spoken to the Wall Street Journal, is quoted as saying that Mr Ghosn was “tired of being an industrial political hostage.”

I say to the Wall Street Journal’s editors: tell me your source and prove it is from a credible person.

Conspiracy theory

Much of the media says that Mr Ghosn employed a group of helpers who helped him flee Japan.

One of his legal team in Tokyo – Junichio Hironaka – said that “he must have had a large organisation to pull this off.”

The press loves a conspiracy theory.

The Times newspaper said: “The businessman who is 5’6” is believed to have been carried out of his apartment in Tokyo in a large musical instrument case by band members in an operation assisted by former special forces members.”

The Times told its readers that its story was “based on Lebanese and Japanese media reports.”

In fact, the story about the musical instrument case originated as a joke on a Lebanese TV station called MTV.

Paid Assistants

There may be people who are helping Mr Ghosn but it is difficult to see how he can pay them.

Since his arrest in November 2018 he has been either in detention or held on bail. At the heart of the case against him is the allegation that he understated his pay by tens of millions of dollars.

If Mr Ghosn does not appear in court, the Japanese authorities plan to confiscate all the 1.5 billion yen ($14 million) he posted as bail.

Meet the press

One way for Mr Ghosn to deal with the media would be to hold a press conference. But who would organise a press conference on behalf of a fugitive who is now subject to a red notice from the international police group Interpol?

Let’s imagine for a moment that the “presser” is held in Lebanon. The moment Mr Ghosn breaks cover there will uproar.

And as he leaves the venue, will he not be followed by a mob of reporters, paparazzi as well as secret agents or even bounty hunters?

Mr Ghosn was offered the chance to put his case at the court hearing in Tokyo. He made the fateful decision to leave Japan. Wherever he is now and whoever is helping him, it’s only a matter of time before the media uncovers his hiding place. And when the press find him, the story will explode back into the headlines.

Japan’s plan to help victorious Boris Johnson

Does the British Prime Minister Boris Johnson require any advice following his party’s landslide victory in last week’s general election?

As a former journalist, he may well feel he’s entitled to switch off the TV, unplug the computer and ignore the newspapers.

Nevertheless, thousands of reporters are eagerly offering him suggestions on which policies he should follow. One proposal which appeared in the Financial Times caught my eye.

The writer, Gideon Rachman, started by repeating the FT’s position that the Brexit is a disaster for the UK’s businesses and for its economy. He said: “a sceptical world believes that leaving the EU is an act of self harm.”

But he went on to suggest that a landmark deal with Japan could help “rebuild British power and influence.”

Trade opportunity

The article said that Britain should become a member of the Trans-Pacific Partnership, an international trading pact which is strongly advocated by Japan’s Prime Minister, Shinzo Abe.

Mr Rachman claimed that countries like Japan “have a clear interest in preserving international rules at a time when both the US and China are challenging the multilateral order.”

Following the Brexit, British diplomats face many years of trade negotiations with countries outside the EU.

One key consideration will be how to approach China, which is hugely important to the global economy but which is run on a quite different political system to that of the UK.

Mr Abe could make the case that if Britain sides with China through the TPP, this would help counterweight Chinese influence, especially within Asia. The TPP includes several nations which could be regarded as rivals of China, such as Singapore, Vietnam and Malaysia.

Other members include Australia, New Zealand and Canada, all of which enjoy a close relationship with Britain.

Trump’s world view

Japan had hoped that the United States would also be part of the TPP. Barack Obama agreed to join but Donald Trump withdrew America’s application as soon as he became president.

Nevertheless, Mr Abe has done his best to keep on good terms with Mr Trump. This pleases many people in Washington, who believe that America’s focus nowadays should be Asia and not Europe or the Middle East.

Mr Johnson and Mr Trump have a built a rapport and have some common ground.

Following the general election, Downing Street announced: “The prime minister spoke with president Trump, who congratulated him on the result.

“They discussed the huge importance of the relationship between the UK and US and looked forward to continued close cooperation on issues such as security and trade, including the negotiation of an ambitious free trade agreement.”

I doubt that during their short telephone exchange they got onto the topic the TPP. But I wouldn’t be surprised if it’s mentioned next time they meet, especially in the context of the importance of Asia to the global economy.

These are the skills you need to show the boss you’re worthy of work

Do employers in Japan, the UK and other countries share similar expectations when it comes it to new recruits?

This week, I heard a radio interview with Claire Birch from the employment firm Reed, who helps people find work in the British Midlands. She told BBC Radio Four’s Today programme that the following three qualities are crucial

1. Communication skills

2. Having the correct mindset

3. Promoting yourself as a suitable employee

The Japan Business Federation, the Keidanren, which annually surveys its member companies about the emphasis they place when they hire new workers, also found that “communication skills” and other factors related to a candidate’s personality are almost always seen as more important than their expertise.

Communicating well

I am pleased that there is a consensus that communication is highly prized. Although it is a difficult skill to assess, there are many ways in which it can be nurtured; everything from writing poems to making YouTube videos. Japanese teenagers often get a boost by putting on school plays, which are performed to a very high standard.

In the context of international work, being able to communicate well in English is also useful. Yet according to, Japan came a disappointing fifty-third in a ranking of countries based on their citizens’ ability to speak and write English. That puts it in the “low proficiency” bracket for English globally.

Thinking right

But what about the second quality that Claire Reed mentioned – having the right mind set? I am sure that this must be influenced a great deal by the sector in which one is seeking work and the culture of the company.

In Japan for example, does a willingness to play golf with your boss reflect the right mindset? Or is that an outdated way of thinking about things, which grates against creating a diverse workforce?

And what about Claire’s point about promoting yourself as a suitable employee? In the US and Europe, LinkedIn and social media are often used proactively by people who are looking for work or who want to expand their network. But relatively few people in Japan use such platforms. Instead, many people use clubs linked to their old universities to network and promote themselves.

However, a recent article in the Nikkei Asian Review suggested that Japan “risks falling behind in terms of global skills competitiveness if it sticks to its conventional hiring practices, which place more weight on applicants’ characters rather than their expertise.”

The article suggested that Japanese universities should do more to encourage people to take post-graduate qualifications and it suggested employers should reward them for doing so.

“The Japanese market is isolated from the global standard of evaluating human resources,” said Eiji Oguma, professor of social science at Keio University.

This may be partly because Japan has low unemployment. Japan’s Ministry of Internal Affairs and Communications puts the unemployment rate for October at 2.4 percent. In the UK, the official unemployment rate is also low, at about 3.8%.

That means there is less competition for jobs but of course, this greatly depends on the type of work for which one is applying. In both countries, finding people to work long hours in shops or care homes is a struggle.

But I am sure that people who want the most rewarding positions in prestigious organisations will always have an advantage if they can prove to their potential employers that they have the skills which mark them out as special candidates.